Nove motivos para você se preocupar com a nova lei da terceirização

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O número de trabalhadores terceirizados deve aumentar caso o Congresso aprove o projeto 4.330/2004. A nova legislação abre as portas para que as empresas possam terceirizar todas as suas atividades. Hoje, somente o que é não faz parte da atividade-fim pode ser delegado a outras empresas, como por exemplo a limpeza, a segurança e a manutenção de máquinas. Entidades de trabalhadores, auditores fiscais do trabalho, procuradores do trabalho e juízes trabalhistas acreditam que o projeto é nocivo aos trabalhadores e à sociedade.

Descubra por que você deve se preocupar com a mudança.

1) Salários e benefícios devem ser cortados

O salário de trabalhadores terceirizados é 24% menor do que o dos empregados formais, segundo o Dieese (Departamento Intersindical de Estatística e Estudos Socioeconômicos). No setor bancário, a diferença é ainda maior: eles ganham em média um terço do salário dos contratados. Segundo o Sindicato dos Bancários de São Paulo, eles não têm participação nos lucros, auxílio-creche e jornada de seis horas.

2) Número de empregos pode cair

Terceirizados trabalham, em média, três horas a mais por semana do que contratados diretamente. Com mais gente fazendo jornadas maiores, deve cair o número de vagas em todos os setores. Se o processo fosse inverso e os terceirizados passassem a trabalhar o mesmo número de horas que os contratados, seriam criadas 882.959 novas vagas, segundo o Dieese.

3) Risco de acidente vai aumentar

Os terceirizados são os empregados que mais sofrem acidentes. Na Petrobras, mais de 80% dos mortos em serviço entre 1995 e 2013 eram subcontratados. A segurança é prejudicada porque companhias de menor porte não têm as mesmas condições tecnológicas e econômicas. Além disso, elas recebem menos cobrança para manter um padrão equivalente ao seu porte.

4) Preconceito no trabalho pode crescer

A maior ocorrência de denúncias de discriminação está em setores onde há mais terceirizados, como os de limpeza e vigilância, segundo relatório da Central Única dos Trabalhadores (CUT). Com refeitórios, vestiários e uniformes que os diferenciam, incentiva-se a percepção discriminatória de que são trabalhadores de “segunda classe”.

5) Negociação com patrão ficará mais difícil

Terceirizados que trabalham em um mesmo local têm patrões diferentes e são representados por sindicatos de setores distintos. Essa divisão afeta a capacidade deles pressionarem por benefícios. Isolados, terão mais dificuldades de negociar de forma conjunta ou de fazer ações como greves.

6) Casos de trabalho escravo podem se multiplicar

O uso de empresas terceirizadas é um artifício para tentar fugir das responsabilidades trabalhistas. Entre 2010 e 2014, cerca de 90% dos trabalhadores resgatados nos dez maiores flagrantes de trabalho escravo contemporâneo eram terceirizados, conforme dados do Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego. Casos como esses já acontecem em setores como mineração, confecções e manutenção elétrica.

7) Maus empregadores sairão impunes

Com a nova lei, ficará mais difícil responsabilizar empregadores que desrespeitam os direitos trabalhistas porque a relação entre a empresa principal e o funcionário terceirizado fica mais distante e difícil de ser comprovada. Em dezembro do último ano, o Tribunal Superior do Trabalho tinha 15.082 processos sobre terceirização na fila para serem julgados e a perspectiva dos juízes é que esse número aumente. Isso porque é mais difícil provar a responsabilidade dos empregadores sobre lesões a terceirizados.

8) Haverá mais facilidades para a corrupção

Casos de corrupção como o do bicheiro Carlos Cachoeira e do ex-governador do Distrito Federal José Roberto Arruda envolviam a terceirização de serviços públicos. Em diversos casos menores, contratos fraudulentos de terceirização também foram usados para desviar dinheiro do Estado. Para o procurador do trabalho Rafael Gomes, a nova lei libera a corrupção nas terceirizações do setor público. A saúde e a educação pública perdem dinheiro com isso.

9) Estado terá menos arrecadação e mais gasto

Empresas menores pagam menos impostos. Como o trabalho terceirizado transfere funcionários para empresas menores, isso diminuiria a arrecadação do Estado. Ao mesmo tempo, a ampliação da terceirização deve provocar uma sobrecarga adicional ao SUS (Sistema Único de Saúde) e ao INSS. Segundo ministros do TST, isso acontece porque os trabalhadores terceirizados são vítimas de acidentes de trabalho e doenças ocupacionais com maior frequência, o que gera gastos ao setor público.

Fontes: Relatórios e pareceres da Procuradoria Geral da República (PGR), da Central Única dos Trabalhadores (CUT), do Departamento Intersindical de Estatística e Estudos Socioeconômicos (Dieese) e de juízes do Tribunal Superior do Trabalho (TST). Entrevistas com o auditor-fiscal Renato Bignami e o procurador do trabalho Rafael Gomes.

Texto: Piero Locatelli – Repórter Brasil.

Fonte: Blog do Sakamoto

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