25 de julho – dia da mulher negra

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Um dia de homenagens para lembrar que a luta da mulher precisa seguir. O Brasil celebra nesta segunda-feira (25) o Dia Nacional da Mulher Negra, data instituída pela Lei nº 12.987/2014, inspirada no Dia da Mulher Afro-Latina-Americana e Caribenha, criado em julho de 1992 como um marco internacional da luta e resistência da mulher negra no mundo. Essa data também é o Dia Nacional de Tereza de Benguela, líder quilombola que viveu no atual estado de Mato Grosso durante o século XVIII.

O racismo e a escravidão negra ainda não morreram

Números recentes do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE) revelam que 71% das mulheres negras estão em ocupações precárias e informais, contra 54% das mulheres brancas e 48% dos homens brancos. O salário médio da trabalhadora negra continua sendo a metade do salário da trabalhadora branca. Mesmo quando sua escolaridade é similar à escolaridade de uma mulher branca, a diferença salarial gira em torno de 40% a mais para esta.

Um outro estudo, realizado pelo Departamento Penitenciário Nacional (Depen), em 2014, mostra que 68% da população das penitenciárias femininas do País são mulheres negras, contra 31% de mulheres brancas e 1% de indígenas. Os dados também apontam que 49% da população penitenciária feminina do País têm menos de 29 anos e 50% possui apenas o ensino fundamental incompleto.

O levantamento revela, ainda, que o Brasil ocupa a 5ª posição da lista de 20 países com maior número de mulheres presas, ficando atrás apenas dos Estados Unidos, China, Rússia e Tailândia.

Origem do Dia da Mulher Afro-Latina-Americana e Caribenha

A partir da realização do 1º Encontro de Mulheres Afro-latino-americanas e Afro-caribenhas, (1992, em Santo Domingo, na República Dominicana) foi criada a Rede de Mulheres Afro-latino-americanas e Afro-caribenhas e a definição do 25 de julho como Dia da Mulher Afro-latino-americana e Caribenha.

No Brasil, a Lei nº 12.987/2014, foi sancionada pela presidenta Dilma Rousseff, como o Dia Nacional de Tereza de Benguela e da Mulher Negra. Tereza de Benguela foi uma líder quilombola, viveu durante o século 18. Com a morte do companheiro, Tereza se tornou a rainha do quilombo, e, sob sua liderança, a comunidade negra e indígena resistiu à escravidão por duas décadas, sobrevivendo até 1770, quando o quilombo foi destruído pelas forças de Luiz Pinto de Souza Coutinho e a população (79 negros e 30 índios), morta ou aprisionada.

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